Prospects for the development of foreign tourism in Germany
Despite the fact that Germany is the main destination tourism market in the world, forms large-scale tourist flows for traveling abroad and has the largest negative balance of tourism, the tourism sector of this country occupies a significant place in GDP (8%), employing about 3 million people. That is why the entire tourism system belongs to the Ministry of Economics, which includes the National Tourism Board, which carries out state regulation of the tourism sector in Germany. In addition, there is the German Tourism Development Center, a non-profit organization whose goal is to promote Germany’s tourism opportunities within the country and beyond.
The priority areas of activity of the German Center for Tourism Development are the following:
– Strengthening the image of Germany as a tourist destination;
– Achieving the growth of all indicators of tourism development at the global level;
– Tourist use of transport infrastructure;
– Retention of the title of “Country No. 1 in Europe on business trips” for Germany (thematic motto 2012);
– Support for international communication;
– Use and development for tourism purposes of the cultural heritage of Germany;
– The development of health tourism on a national scale, as the German Center for Tourism Development announced the theme of 2011 “Wellness vacation”;
– Development of tourism products taking into account the environmental factor;
– Support for the internationalization of cities and regions;
– The global use of multi-channel in sales.
Germany has a highly developed tourism industry to receive and serve tourists. Among the diverse participants in the German tourism market, 3 major corporations can be distinguished: TUI Deutschland, REWE-Touristik and Tomas Cook, which concentrated 70% of the tourism services market in their hands. For example, the tourist system “REWE” includes 1260 travel agencies. In addition to tourism, REWE is engaged in other industrial and commercial activities; in total, two and a half thousand different enterprises work in this corporation. Following the results of last year, REWE ranks third in the German tourism market, the annual turnover of the concern amounted to 60 billion euros. The principle of all German tourism corporations is to have their own airline, their own hotel and transport system. All this gives them the opportunity to concentrate their activities and provide customers with a complete package of services.
53 thousand accommodation facilities work in the hotel sector in Germany, about 9.8 thousand travel agencies are involved in travel arrangements. Air traffic is provided by 16 international airports. The largest airlines are Lufthansa, Air Berlin, DBA (low-cost transportation). The country has a well-developed system of highways, there are high-speed rail trains “InterCityExpress”.
The entire tourism system in Germany today has been created over several decades; At the moment it is at a high modern level and continues to progress. According to UNWTO statistics, in recent years, Germany has firmly entered the top ten countries – leaders in receiving foreign tourists, and it occupies the 6th place in the world in foreign exchange earnings in the industry. The largest increase in tourist overnight stays is noted among tourists from the Netherlands, the USA, Great Britain and Switzerland. The number of tourist arrivals is increasing by an average of 6.1% per year. At the same time, one cannot but note the disproportion in the distribution of tourist traffic within the country – its lion’s share falls on the so-called “old lands” of Germany.
In 2008, foreign tourist traffic in Germany reached a record high, exceeding 56.5 million arrivals. Although the number of international tourists declined in the second half of 2008, Germany recorded an increase in arrivals every month with the exception of November, which provided tourism revenue of 27.2 billion euros.
The German tourism industry experienced a significant increase in Dutch arrivals (9.7 million overnight stays or 7.7% for 2007-2008), for which Germany is the most popular destination at present. The increase in the number of overnight stays of tourists from Denmark also amounted to 7.7%. The number of Russian tourists increased by 19.4%. As for Ukrainians, in 2008 in Germany 146.6 thousand arrivals of our compatriots were recorded, and compared with 2007, this figure increased by 14.2%. At the same time, the number of tourists from some countries decreased (USA – 4.6%, Spain – 0.5%, Great Britain – 4.3%) as a result of the impact of the World Economic Crisis.
The most visited cities are Berlin, Munich and Frankfurt, Dusseldorf and Hamburg.
The concept of development of the national tourism industry is based on 4 “pillars”: “Cultural tourism”, “Agrotourism”, “Event tourism”, “Business tourism”.
The main factors contributing to the attraction of foreign tourists to Germany are the following:
1. High concentration of historical